| |

12 Absolutely Best Beaches In Uluwatu Bali 2024 Guide


Searching for the best beaches in Uluwatu?

Are you heading to Bali and want to know where are the most gorgeous beaches? We live in Bali and are here to share our favourite stretches of sand.

We often visit Uluwatu at weekends, and each time, we pick a different beach. In this post, we are sharing our favourite Uluwatu beaches with insider tips on how to get there and what to expect.

Enjoy the read!

Our 3 Favourite Beaches In Uluwatu




Nyang Nyang Uluwatu Beaches
Shipwreck at Nyang Nyang Beach in Uluwatu

Best Beaches In Uluwatu – Map

#1 Suluban Beach – The Best Beach In Uluwatu For Pro Surfers.

Suluban is the most famous Uluwatu Beach.

Suluban Beach is one of the best beaches Uluwatu offers for pro surfers. If you are not one of them, you can watch them from one of the restaurants perched on the top of the cliff. Suluban is also a fantastic spot for watching sunsets.

Getting There

Suluban Beach, also called Blue Point Beach, is located at the very Southwest tip of the Bukit Peninsula in Pecatu Village. It’s about a 30-minute drive from Denpasar Airport. Other close beaches to Suluban are Thomas Beach and Padang Padang.

When you arrive, there is a 5,000 IDR parking charge for your scooter or 15,000 IDR for a car. Once you have parked up, follow the stairs down to get to the beach. On the way down, there are various cafes where you can take a break and some souvenir shops, which makes the strenuous walk down more attractive and even enjoyable!

Things To Do

🌴 Take a selfie. When you get to the bottom, you quickly notice that the beach is very popular, with surfers and Instagram influencers posing for that perfect shot.

🌴 Explore the cave. The beach is best explored at the low tide time when you can safely explore the cave, and on one occasion, we even discovered a smaller beach that becomes accessible during the low tide.

🌴 Take a walk instead of swimming. The beach is not really for lounging, and there is lots of coral and rocks, which make it hard to swim.

🌴 Take in the fascinating view. Our favourite thing to do at Suluban is sitting at a warung with a cold Bintang and watching the surfers ripping through the waves.

🌴 Come back to the cliff for sunset!

Probably one of the most famous sunset places is the Single Fin Beach Club. Watching the sunset from this place is a worthy bucket list experience. The view over the Indian Ocean with dramatic cliffs is to die for. We paid 65,000 IDR for a small Bintang, which is a little bit steep, but they also have a pool, which is a fantastic place to watch the surfers.

Nearby Places To Stay

Suluban is the heart of Uluwatu, which is one of the best places to stay in Uluwatu; here are our top hotel picks.

Suarga Padang Padang is one of the most unique places to stay in Uluwatu.

Luxury – Suarga Padang Padang

Located only a short drive from Suluban, Suarga Padang Padang is a sustainable boutique hotel featuring 36 villas built with a minimal impact on the environment using recycled wood and solar panels.

Dreamsea Bali - one of the unique hotels in Uluwatu.

Mid-range – Dreamsea

This boho boutique hotel is located right on the cliff, boasting spectacular views, and within walking distance to Padang Padang Beach and 10 minutes drive to Suluban.

Sal Secret Spot - Bali hotel instagram worthy.

Budget – Sal Secret Spot

Sal Secret Spot is situated within walking distance to Bingin Beach, a white sanded beach excellent for swimming with a calmer sea and 12 minutes drive from Suluban Beach.

#2 Padang Padang Beach – Best Beach In Uluwatu For Swimming.

Padang Padang Beach

Padang Padang Beach is one of the top beaches in Uluwatu for swimming, thanks to its sheltered location. The beach has soft, white sand, and the water is crystal clear, which is ideal for snorkelling.

We like this beach for its central location, close to some of our favourite restaurants in Ulu, such as Suka – their fish burgers are incredible! We also like that the rocks and trees provide natural shade when you don’t want to pay for parasols.

Getting There

Padang Padang Beach Uluwatu, also known as Labuhan Sait Beach, is located in the western part of Bukit Peninsula between Thomas Beach and Bingin Beach. It’s around 30 min drive from Kuta.

There is a 15,000 IDR ($1) entrance fee.

Things To Do

🌴Padang Padang is great for spending an entire day. There are several warungs along the beach, sun parasols and loungers to rent and a free toilet and shower.

🌴 Padang Padang has some good surfing conditions. It’s suitable for beginners.

🌴 If you’re not into surfing, there are other activities on the beach, including SUP, canoeing and snorkelling.

#3 Dreamland Beach – Great For Accessibility.

Dreamland Beach
Blogger Mal at Dreamland Beach

Unlike most beaches in Uluwatu, Dreamland Beach is easy to access. No need to climb steep cliffs; just park your car, and you’re almost at the beach. We visited during a high tide, which you can see, on the above photo!

Getting There

Dreamland Beach is located on the western side of the Bukit Peninsula between Padang Padang and Balangan beaches. There is a 5,000 IDR fee to park your scooter like on most beaches in Bali. To get to the beach, just walk the path leading down the cliff.

Things To Do

🌴 Take a walk. This beach is one of our favourite in Bali. It’s got fine white sand, and the beach is great for strolling down and exploring its natural beauty.

🌴 Take a refreshing dip in the sea and play with the waves. It’s got fewer rocks than other beaches Uluwatu has to offer, and it’s not as shallow during the low tide. Having said that, waves are still crazy so it’s more playing with massive waves rather than swimming. But it’s great fun! If you’re not a very strong swimmer, be mindful of the sea conditions and make a judgement before you go for a swim.

🌴 Sunbath. The beach has plenty of sun loungers and umbrellas to rent (we paid 100,000 IDR per person, which is around $15 for both of us). You will need to negotiate the price based on how long you want to stay there. There are toilet facilities and shops to grab a drink and a light bite

🌴 Surf. The beach is also great for surfing and there is a rental shop on the beach too.

🌴 Get a foot massage on the beach.

Nearly Places To Stay

Villa Deh Simba at Dreamland Beach Uluwatu

Midrange – Villa Deh Simba

The hotel offers pool access rooms and suites overlooking the ocean. Guests get access to the sister resort facilities: 19 restaurants, including priority access to Bali’s famous Rock Bar, golf course and amenities for kids.

Mid-Range – La Joya Balangan

Situated only a 5-minute walk from Balangan Beach and 15 minutes from Dreamland Beach, on the clifftop, this resort offers epic sunset views and Balinese-style accommodation.

Boutique – La Cabane

La Cabane is a cute place with a gorgeous pool area and stylish rooms. We stayed here and had only 7 minutes drive to Balangan Beach and 27 minutes to Dreamland.

#4 Nyang Nyang – Best Beach Uluwatu Offers For Off The Beaten Track Feel.

Nyang Nyang Beach Uluwatu

Nyang Nyang is probably in our top 3 Uluwatu Bali beaches because it’s not busy at all. And we’re giving it extra points for photo ops with the picturesque shipwreck!

Getting There

Nyang Nyang Beach is located on the south tip of the Bukit Peninsula, around 60 minutes drive from the International Airport. It’s one of the quietest beaches in Uluwatu we have experienced. The most recommended way to get there is to rent a scooter (see the later section of this article for scooter rental tips).

To get to the beach, you will need to hike down the steep path for about 20 min. The path is not the safest and may not be suitable for the elderly or young children, but if you are fairly fit without mobility issues, you will be fine. Wear some proper footwear- trainers or sandals with straps. The descent starts at the paragliding site.

Things To Do

🌴 Enjoy the serenity. If you’re a fan of secluded, peaceful beaches, then look no further. You are very likely to enjoy this place with only a few other people at most.

🌴 Take some photos. The beach is beautiful, and there is a shipwreck that offers some cool shots not to be missed.

🌴 Take a picnic with you! The beach doesn’t have any shops so take your tasty snacks and plenty of water. Remember to carry back all your litter.

🌴 On the way down or on your way back up, there is a café where you can rest and enjoy some incredible views!

🌴 Nyang Nuang Beach is only a 5-minute drive from the Uluwatu temple. After the beach, visit the temple. I highly recommend staying there to watch the sunset!

#5 Green Bowl Beach – A Quiet Beach In Uluwatu.

Green Bowl is one of the quitter beaches in Uluwatu.

Getting There

Green Bowl Beach is located in the southern part of the Bukit Peninsula. It neighbours Pandawa Beach to the east and Melasti Beach to the west. The easiest way to get to this beach is on a motorbike and using Google Maps.

On the way to the beach, don’t be surprised to see small monkeys on the road.

There is no parking fee here (which is rare in Uluwatu); just leave your scooter by the small warung on the cliff and walk down the steep path to the left, down to the beach. The descent is not too bad; the track is decent, and it takes about 10-15 min.

What to expect

The beach is small and relatively quiet. There is a small cave where you can sit if you prefer to be in the shade. The sea is much calmer here so you can have a peaceful swim.
The sun gets behind the cliff in the afternoon covering the beach in shade almost entirely. There are no shops or restaurants so don’t forget to take your snacks and water.

Nearby Places To Stay

Beach Uluwatu

Luxury – Jumana Bali Ungasan

This property consists of luxury private villas with their own infinity pools overlooking the ocean and is located a short drive from Green Bowl Beach.

One of the best beaches Uluwatu has to offer

Midrange – Puri Pandawa Resort

Green Bowl and Pandawa beaches are a short 10-minute drive away. The property offers various types of rooms as well as wooden bungalows; some of them come with a private pool.

#6 Melasti – Most Spectaluar Uluwatu Beach Bali.

is Bali worth visiting

Getting There

Melasti Beach is situated on the southern part of the Bukit Peninsula and is neighbouring with the Green Bowl Beach. You can easily find it by typing its name in Google Maps. You can get here on a scooter or by car. The entrance fee here is 20,000 IDR.

Once you pay the fee at the top, continue driving on the road which will take you all the way down to the beach. Yes, you don’t have to climb 1000 steps this time!

What To Expect

Driving down to the beach, we went passed lots of wedding photoshoots. The spot is very famous for Chinese and South Korean couples to come and take wedding shots. It was fascinating to watch, how much effort and thought were put into them, including vintage cars, different outfits, music and even a wind machine!

The beach itself is wide and long. You can hire a parasol and sun loungers and easily spend here all day (we paid 200,000 IDR ($13) for a pair of loungers). The water is crystal clear and turquoise and the sand fine and white.

There is a lifeguard and plenty of shacks with souvenirs and food.

Here, you also find a few good beach clubs. We reccommend Minoo for families and Palmilla for couples. We also stayed until the evening and watched here a Kecak dance performance, which was really good.

#7 Bingin Beach Bali – Our Favourite!

Drone shot taken by blogger Mal of Bingin Beach in Uluwatu.

Bingin Beach has a relaxed vibes, tends to attract younger crowds and is one of Uluwatu best beaches for swimming. We come here all the time and particularly enjou having a lunch at Kelly’s Warung.

Getting There

Bingin Beach is located on the western side of the Bukit Peninsula in Uluwatu. It is situated between Dreamland Beach and Padang Padang. The best way to get there is on a scooter or car. Bingin is one of the best beaches in Uluwatu for surfing.

There is a Bingin car park where you pay 2,000 IDR for parking. Once you parked up, just follow the swirly path down the cliff, which takes about 5 min.

Things To Do

🌴 Surf the Bingin barrelling wave! To the right of the beach is Bingin surf break which is famous amongst experienced surfers. If you one of them go ahead and try it, if not get a fresh coconut and enjoy watching the surfers from the comfort of your beach towel.

There are some surf shacks on the beach where you can rent out a surfboard. It cost around 50,000 IDR for two hours. You can also take a surf lesson here.

🌴 Walk to the neighbouring beaches. During the low tide, it is possible to walk to Dreamland Beach which is situated to the right and Padang Padang Beach to the left. Be careful, the tide may change quickly.

🌴 Watch the sunset. The sunsets in Uluwatu are one of the most epic we have ever seen! Have a Bintang and enjoy this simple pleasure.

🌴 Have a BBQ at sunset. There are plenty of warungs where you can have fresh food from a BBQ at sunset time. The beach is not as touristy as other Bali beaches so you can enjoy its serenity.

Our favourite is Kelly’s Warung where you can enjoy great smoothie bowls, wraps, juices and Indonesian cuisine. The best thing about this place is that is right in front of where the wave breaks and all the surfing action happens!

#8 Balangan – Best Uluwatu Beach For The Epic Views.

Drone shot taken by blogger Mal of Balangan Beach.

Balangan is one of the best beaches in Uluwatu if you’re looking for stunning photo ops. We also love it for sunset. It’s clifftop view (the photo above was taken from that viewpoint) was the first place where Mal watched the sunset after moving to Bali.

Getting There

Balangan Beach is located in the western part of Bukit Peninsula in Uluwatu. It is neighbouring with Dreamland Beach and it is one of the most famous beaches in Uluwatu on Intstagram.

You can get here on a scooter or by car. There is a small parking fee of 5,000 IDR. Once you leave your scooter, follow the concrete steps down the cliff to reach the beach.

Things To Do

🌴 Surf. Balangan beach is another great spot fur surfing at the Balangan Surf Point. There are plenty of surf shacks at the beach if you need to rent out your board.

🌴 Sunbath & swim. The beach is also great to spend a relaxing day. There are sun loungers and parasols to rent out for an entire day. The price is 50,000-100,000 IDR.

🌴 Balangan viewpoint. If you’re into your Instagram, don’t forget to take a photo from the Insta famous Balangan viewpoint, which you can find on the way to the beach. If Instagram is not your thing, just absorb the stunning view of the Indian Ocean

🌴 Wedding photoshoots. Balangan Beach is also famous for wedding shoots similar to Melasti Beach.

Nearby Places To Stay

La Cabane at Jimbaran Beach

Top Pick – La Cabane

La Cabane is a cute place with a gorgeous pool area and stylish rooms. It is located a 7-minute drive from Balangan Beach (20 minutes walk).

#9 Thomas Beach Bali

Blogger Mal at Thomas Beach in Bali.
Thomas Beach Bali

Thomas beach is one of the quieter of beaches in Uluwatu because it’s located slightly of the beaten path and not clearly marked on Google Maps.

Getting There

Thomas Beach is located not far from Suluban Beach on the western side of the Bukit Peninsula in Uluwatu. You can find it by typing in Google Maps ‘Thomas Bali Guesthouse’. When you see the sign on the main road, turn off and follow a dirt track until you reach a car park.

There is no fee and you only need to walk a few minutes down the steps to reach this secluded beach.

Things To Do

🌴 Swim. Thomas beach is great for swimming. When I last visited the sea seemed much calmer with gentler waves that on other beaches making it easier to swim.

🌴 Bath in the sun or relax in the shade. The beach has sun loungers and umbrellas to rent for 50,000-100,000 IDR for a whole day, making it a great place to relax and spend the whole day.

🌴 Take photos. You’ll find that there are way fewer people on this beach which is great for some photo-taking.

🌴 Surf. Surfing is also possible here, but waves are not as spectacular as on Suluban beach. There are surf shacks on the beach where you can rent a surfboard.

🌴 Eat. There is no need to take your food, there are warungs on the beach like Ari Café where you can have some lunch.

#10 Karma Beach

Karma Kandara via Agoda.com

Karma beach is a private beach accessible from Karma Kandara beach club. If you want slightly different, more upmarket experience away from the crowds to enjoy Uluwatu beaches then this is the place for you.

Getting There

The easiest way to get to Karma beach is by scooter or car. It is clearly marked in Google Maps. Alternatively, you can get a Grab or Gojek. Karma beach is located to the west of Melasti beach.

To access the beach, you will need to be a guest or buy a day pass for Karma Kandara beach club. It costs 650,000 IDR ($42) and includes food and drink voucher for 400,000 IDR.

There is a cable car that will take you down the cliff to the beach. It’s a little scary, but the views are insane!

Things To Do

🌴 Spend the day in style sipping cocktails and chilling on the sun lounger or day bed.

🌴 Have some lunch with the food voucher.

🌴 Enjoy the pristine beach with turquoise water.

🌴 Do some SUPing, kayaking and snorkelling.

🌴 Dance barefoot on the sand to the DJ soundtracks.

🌴 The club also organises movie nights on the beach.

#11 Pandawa Beach Bali – Local Feel.

Pandawa Beach

Getting There

Pandawa Beach is located in the south in the Bukit Peninsula in Uluwatu. It takes about 1 hour 30 min to get here from Kuta but up to 30 min if you’re staying in Uluwatu area. The other close beaches to Pandawa are Melasti and Green Bowl beaches.

The easiest way to get to this Uluwatu beach is to rent a scooter which is the most cost-effective way, you can get one for 50,000 IDR a day. Other ways include rented car, taxi, Grab or a hired car with a driver.

Since a new road was built leading to the bottom of the beach in 2012, Pandawa once known as one of the hidden beaches in Uluwatu, has become more popular and frequented by locals and tourists alike. Before you descent down the massive limestone cliff take in the view of the Indian Ocean.

What To Expect

Once you arrived at the beach there is a 2,000- 5,000 IDR parking fee to be paid. There is also a tall fee of 15,000 IDR to use the new access road to the beach.

The sea here is much calmer which is perfect for swimming and the water crystal clear and turquoise. The beach is wide with fine, white sand.

The place is perfect for spending a lazy day. You can rent an umbrella and sun loungers and have some lunch in one of the beach warungs.

Things To Do

🌴 Admire the huge, white Statue of Panca Pandawa.

🌴 Get traditional Balinese massage for 100,000 IDR.

🌴 Enjoy canoeing the calm sea.

Places to stay near Pandawa beach

Beach Uluwatu

Top Pick – Jumana Bali Ungasan

This property consists of luxury private villas with their own infinity pools overlooking the ocean. The hotel is located a few minutes walk from Melasti Beach and a short drive from Green Bowl and Pandawa.

One of the best beaches Uluwatu has to offer

Midrange – Puri Pandawa Resort

This hotel is situated in a lush garden away from it all. Green Bowl and Pandawa beaches are a short 10-minute drive away, and you can reach Melasti beach in 15 min.

#12 Jimbaran Beach – Best For Families.

Jimbaran Beach is one of the best beaches in Uluwatu for families.

Jimbaran beach is located only 15 min drive from the airport. The beach stretches 4 km in length, it’s got white, fine sand and the sea here is so much calmer which makes it a perfect spot for families with young kids. We love coming here for romantic seafood dinners on the beach.

Getting There

Jimbaran beach is clearly marked on Google Maps. You can get here by scooter, car or taxi. You can also walk to the beach from Jimbaran town.

Things To Do

🌴 SUP. Yes, thanks to an unbroken coral reef that protects the beach from crazy waves, the sea is calm enough to do some stand-up paddle boarding! If you’ve never done it but would love to try there are classes for beginners and guided sunset tours.

🌴 Seafood restaurants. Jimbaran beach is home to many good seafood restaurants. Dine-in style right on the beach while watching one of the best sunsets in your life.

🌴 Watch the sun goes down. While staying in Jimbaran I’ve experienced some epic sunset every day.

🌴 Go for a morning jog. The beach is 4 km long and very wide which is perfect to get some cardio done on your holiday.

Nearby Places To Stay

Top – Kayumanis Private Estate

Walking distance to the beach, this property is a collection of luxury Balinese open living villas with private pools. We stayed here ourselves and loved the place!

Villa Deh Simba at Dreamland Beach Uluwatu

Mid-Range – Rimba Jimbaran

The hotel offers pool access rooms and suites overlooking the ocean. Guests get access to the sister resort facilities: 19 restaurants, including priority access to the famous Rock Bar, golf course and amenities for kids.

Great hotel for families at Jimbaran Beach

Budget – Fox Hotel

This hotel offers clean, spacious rooms and a rooftop swimming pool. It’s located a five-minute walk to the beach, where you get a token for free sun loungers.

What’s The Best Time To Visit Bali?

Bali’s climate is tropical, warm and humid, with two main seasons to consider – dry and rainy seasons. The temperature in Bali is always around 30 degrees C.

The rainy season starts in November and lasts until March. If you want to make the most of Bali’s beaches, we would avoid this time.

July, August, Easter, and Christmas are considered high seasons. It’s the time when Bali gets the highest number of visitors. Beaches are crowded, traffic may get unbearable, and accommodation prices are the highest.

Between April and June and September to October, crowds are lighter, and hotel prices are cheaper. Those months are still within the dry season with blue skies and clear water, perfect for scuba diving, snorkelling and other water sports.

How To Get Around Uluwatu

By Scooter Rental

The most convenient and cheapest way to visit Uluwatu is to rent a motorbike. Rental shops are widely available throughout Uluwatu and Jimbaran areas. You can contact your hotel/hostel to arrange this for you ahead of your arrival. They can also advise you about the rental services closest to your accommodation.

Things to check
If it’s your first time, make sure you are shown how to operate your scooter. Check that breaks and lights work correctly. Always wear a helmet! Remember to drive on the left side (same as in the UK).

If you need to top up your fuel, petrol is sold in glass bottles on the side of the road. It’s cheap but doesn’t last very long. Always make sure you’ve got enough petrol to come back to your accommodation.

If you’re planning to watch the sunset, remember that you’ll be coming back in the dark. Again, make sure your lights work and your phone has enough battery so that you can use maps and get safely back to your hotel. Also, after dark, there is way more traffic, so if you’re not so confident, consider another mode of transport.

All beaches can be found on Google Maps and are relatively easy to navigate. When you’re on your motorbike, don’t look at your phone but put your headphones on and listen to the audio navigation. Read the next section on how to get cheap internet in Bali.

Price – 60,000-100,000 IDR per day

By Gojek

If you don’t want to rent a scooter, you can get to places by ordering a taxi through Gojek or Grab. Simply download their apps to your smartphone. You can register your credit card, but cash is the preferred payment method while using these apps.

SIM Card

The cheapest way to use the internet on your phone in Bali is to get a local SIM card. You can choose how many GBs you want, and the card costs around $5-$10. The best places to buy your card are specialised SIM shops, where you can buy your internet top, and they will set everything up on your phone so you don’t need to worry.

Beaches In Uluwatu: FAQs

Does Uluwatu have nice beaches?

Yes, Uluwatu, located in Bali, boasts some of the most stunning beaches in the world. These beaches are known for their dramatic cliffs, crystal-clear waters, and incredible surfing spots. Dreamland Beach, Padang Padang, and Suluban Beach are among the highlights. The combination of natural beauty and world-class waves makes Uluwatu a beach lover’s paradise.

What is the nicest beach in Uluwatu?

In our personal opinion, Padang Padang Beach stands out as the most beautiful beach in Uluwatu. Its white sands, crystal-clear waters, and captivating rock formations create a true tropical haven. Nestled amidst towering cliffs, it’s the perfect spot for surf enthusiasts and those seeking a slice of paradise. Don’t miss a visit to this Uluwatu gem.

Which beaches in Uluwatu are without steps?

Based on my personal experience, most of the beaches in Uluwatu have some degree of access via steps due to the rugged cliff landscape. The beach that is the easiest to get to are Malesti and Pandawa beaches, where you can park your car, right in front of the sand.

Is it safe to swim at Uluwatu?

Swimming in Uluwatu can be a fantastic experience, but it’s essential to exercise caution. we’ve personally enjoyed swimming there, but the strong currents and powerful waves can make it risky, especially for inexperienced swimmers. The best Uluwatu beach for swimming is Padang Padang. 

Is Uluwatu better than Canggu?

Both Uluwatu and Canggu have their unique charms. Uluwatu offers dramatic cliffside beauty and world-class beaches, ideal for surfers and those seeking a serene escape. Canggu, on the other hand, has a vibrant atmosphere with trendy cafes and a bustling social scene. The choice depends on your preferences.

What is better Uluwatu or Seminyak?

Choosing between Uluwatu and Seminyak depends on your preferences. As we mentioned before, Uluwatu is known for its stunning cliffside beauty and surf-worthy beaches, offering a more tranquil escape. In contrast, Seminyak offers a lively atmosphere with chic boutiques, restaurants, and nightlife. It’s a matter of whether you seek relaxation or a bustling social scene.

Before You Go

We hope you liked our guide to the best beaches in Uluwatu. We visit this part of Bali very often, and we love it! We think you may also fin the followinf posts helpful:

Like it? Pin it.

#uluwatu #uluwatubeaches #balibeaches #balitravel Ultimate guide to best Uluwatu Beaches and beyond. Tips on getting there, hotels and what to expect.

Similar Posts


  1. Thank you so much for this post. I was researching my visit to Bali when COVID-19 broke out in Australia so my plans to visit have been put on hold. Being a beach lover I will definitely be visiting some of the beaches you mention.

  2. Bali is on myind since the time of choosing a destination for my honeymoon. I am saving this one for later reference as you have covered everything meticulously.

  3. This is such a great post! I spent 3 weeks in Bali a couple of years ago but didn’t get to visit all these beautiful beaches! Will definitely use this guide if I ever go back!

Comments are closed.